Transport Ecology and Energy Efficiency
Issues of environmental safety and energy efficiency of the transport complex are has been developed by JSC "NIIAT" for a long time, especially in the last 10-15 years. The main activities in this area include:
- Development of policy documents and improving environmental protection and energy efficiency of the transport complex (federal and regional);
- Development of methodological support for the inventory of emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases of various objects of the road sector;
- Development of normative-technical documents (standards) to evaluate the technical condition of vehicles on environmental indicators.
In 2011 JSC "NIIAT" developed the concept of ecological safety in transport. The purpose of the concept is the creation of an environmentally sustainable transport system in the Russian Federation. Within this framework, a draft action plan aimed at reducing the adverse impact of transport on the environment was developed. Proposed activities affected rail, water, air and road transport, the latter being especially important for the institute as a key source of negative impact on the environment and human health in large cities.
"NIIAT" is also developing the Concept of energy saving and energy efficiency in the transport sector. As part of this work about 100 activities were prompted in different areas of the transportation industry.
A prerequisite for assessing the effectiveness of proposed measures to improve environmental safety and efficiency of road transport is the availability of modern methodological support. JSC "NIIAT" is the main developer of methods for inventory of pollutant emissions of motor transport facilities of the complex. Of the nine current methods included in the section "Road transport" of the "List of methods used in the 2013 for calculation, regulation and control of emissions into the air," 8 were developed by "NIIAT".
The techniques are designed for use by environmental and regulatory organizations implementing regulation of emissions, state control in the field of air, eco-analytical control emissions, as well as organizations involved in urban planning, transportation and road-building activities, in developing projects of development and reconstruction of transport infrastructure, the stock control of total emissions of pollutants of motor vehicles and motor and car companies, road-building machines when executing the works, as well as in the database of road machinery.
Another area of regulatory and methodological support, conducted in JSC "NIIAT", aimed at monitoring the environmental performance of vehicles in operation is the development of standards for evaluation of the technical condition of vehicles on environmental indicators.
JSC "NIIAT" prepares an annual section "Transport" for the State report "Ecology and environmental protection in the Russian Federation", which assesses the impact of road transport and road infrastructure on the environment in the previous year.
The topic of improvement of the environmental safety of urban transport systems is actively developed at the international level. NIIAT is involved in the two largest programs - Transport, Health and Environment Pan-European Programme (PEP) and CIVITAS, is a member of the International Fuel Quality Center (IFQC), a member of the Partnership for Clean Fuels and Vehicles Division of Technology, Industry and Economics United Nations Environment Programme.